Mathematics & Statistics Research
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/859
2021-10-19T14:42:26ZSurveying abundance and stand type associations of Formica aquilonia and F. lugubris (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) nest mounds over an extensive area : Trialing a novel method
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/16260
Red wood ants are ecologically important members of woodland communities, and some species are of conservation concern. They occur commonly only in certain habitats in Britain, but there is limited knowledge of their numbers and distribution. This study provided baseline information at a key locality (Abernethy Forest, 37 km2) in the central Highlands of Scotland and trialed a new method of surveying red wood ant density and stand type associations: a distance sampling line transect survey of nests. This method is efficient because it allows an observer to quickly survey a large area either side of transect lines, without having to assume that all nests are detected. Instead, data collected on the distance of nests from the line are used to estimate probability of detection and the effective transect width, using the free software "Distance". Surveys took place in August and September 2003 along a total of 71.2 km of parallel, equally-spaced transects. One hundred and forty-four red wood ant nests were located, comprising 89 F. aquilonia (Yarrow, 1955) and 55 F. lugubris (Zetterstedt, 1838) nests. Estimated densities were 1.13 nests per hectare (95% CI 0.74-1.73) for F. aquilonia and 0.83 nests per hectare (95% CI 0.32-2.17) for F. lugubris. These translated to total estimated nest numbers of 4,200 (95% CI 2,700-6,400) and 3,100 (95% CI 1,200-8,100), respectively, for the whole forest. Indices of stand selection indicated that F. aquilonia had some positive association with old-growth and F. lugubris with younger stands (stem exclusion stage). No nests were found in areas that had been clear-felled, and ploughed and planted in the 1970s-1990s. The pattern of stand type association and hence distribution of F. aquilonia and F. lugubris may be due to the differing ability to disperse (F. lugubris is the faster disperser) and compete (F. aquilonia is competitively superior). We recommend using line transect sampling for extensive surveys of ants that construct nest mounds to estimate abundance and stand type association.
2012-01-03T00:00:00ZBorkin, KerrySummers, RonThomas, LenRed wood ants are ecologically important members of woodland communities, and some species are of conservation concern. They occur commonly only in certain habitats in Britain, but there is limited knowledge of their numbers and distribution. This study provided baseline information at a key locality (Abernethy Forest, 37 km2) in the central Highlands of Scotland and trialed a new method of surveying red wood ant density and stand type associations: a distance sampling line transect survey of nests. This method is efficient because it allows an observer to quickly survey a large area either side of transect lines, without having to assume that all nests are detected. Instead, data collected on the distance of nests from the line are used to estimate probability of detection and the effective transect width, using the free software "Distance". Surveys took place in August and September 2003 along a total of 71.2 km of parallel, equally-spaced transects. One hundred and forty-four red wood ant nests were located, comprising 89 F. aquilonia (Yarrow, 1955) and 55 F. lugubris (Zetterstedt, 1838) nests. Estimated densities were 1.13 nests per hectare (95% CI 0.74-1.73) for F. aquilonia and 0.83 nests per hectare (95% CI 0.32-2.17) for F. lugubris. These translated to total estimated nest numbers of 4,200 (95% CI 2,700-6,400) and 3,100 (95% CI 1,200-8,100), respectively, for the whole forest. Indices of stand selection indicated that F. aquilonia had some positive association with old-growth and F. lugubris with younger stands (stem exclusion stage). No nests were found in areas that had been clear-felled, and ploughed and planted in the 1970s-1990s. The pattern of stand type association and hence distribution of F. aquilonia and F. lugubris may be due to the differing ability to disperse (F. lugubris is the faster disperser) and compete (F. aquilonia is competitively superior). We recommend using line transect sampling for extensive surveys of ants that construct nest mounds to estimate abundance and stand type association.Erwin Schrödinger and quantum wave mechanics
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/11543
The fathers of matrix quantum mechanics believed that the quantum particles are unanschaulich (unvisualizable) and that quantum particles pop into existence only when we measure them. Challenging the orthodoxy, in 1926 Erwin Schrödinger developed his wave equation that describes the quantum particles as a packet of quantum probability amplitudes evolving in space and time. Thus, Schrödinger visualized the unvisualizable and lifted the veil that has been obscuring the wonders of the quantum world.
2017-08-22T00:00:00ZO'Connor, John J.Robertson, Edmund F.The fathers of matrix quantum mechanics believed that the quantum particles are unanschaulich (unvisualizable) and that quantum particles pop into existence only when we measure them. Challenging the orthodoxy, in 1926 Erwin Schrödinger developed his wave equation that describes the quantum particles as a packet of quantum probability amplitudes evolving in space and time. Thus, Schrödinger visualized the unvisualizable and lifted the veil that has been obscuring the wonders of the quantum world.Spontaneous reconnection at a separator current layer : I. Nature of the reconnection
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/8959
Magnetic separators, which lie on the boundary between four topologically-distinct flux domains, are prime locations in three-dimensional magnetic fields for reconnection, especially in the magnetosphere between the planetary and interplanetary magnetic fields and also in the solar atmosphere. Little is known about the details of separator reconnection and so the aim of this paper, which is the first of two, is to study the properties of magnetic reconnection at a single separator. Three-dimensional, resistive magnetohydrodynamic numerical experiments are run to study separator reconnection starting from a magnetohydrostatic equilibrium which contains a twisted current layer along a single separator linking a pair of opposite-polarity null points. The resulting reconnection occurs in two phases. The first is short involving rapid reconnection in which the current at the separator is reduced by a factor of around 2.3. Most 75% of the magnetic energy is converted during this phase, via Ohmic dissipation, directly into internal energy, with just 0.1% going into kinetic energy. During this phase the reconnection occurs along most of the separator away from its ends (the nulls), but in an asymmetric manner which changes both spatially and temporally over time. The second phase is much longer and involves slow impulsive-bursty reconnection. Again Ohmic heating dominates over viscous damping. Here the reconnection occurs in small localized bursts at random anywhere along the separator.
2015-12-01T00:00:00ZE. H. Stevenson, JulieE. Parnell, ClareMagnetic separators, which lie on the boundary between four topologically-distinct flux domains, are prime locations in three-dimensional magnetic fields for reconnection, especially in the magnetosphere between the planetary and interplanetary magnetic fields and also in the solar atmosphere. Little is known about the details of separator reconnection and so the aim of this paper, which is the first of two, is to study the properties of magnetic reconnection at a single separator. Three-dimensional, resistive magnetohydrodynamic numerical experiments are run to study separator reconnection starting from a magnetohydrostatic equilibrium which contains a twisted current layer along a single separator linking a pair of opposite-polarity null points. The resulting reconnection occurs in two phases. The first is short involving rapid reconnection in which the current at the separator is reduced by a factor of around 2.3. Most 75% of the magnetic energy is converted during this phase, via Ohmic dissipation, directly into internal energy, with just 0.1% going into kinetic energy. During this phase the reconnection occurs along most of the separator away from its ends (the nulls), but in an asymmetric manner which changes both spatially and temporally over time. The second phase is much longer and involves slow impulsive-bursty reconnection. Again Ohmic heating dominates over viscous damping. Here the reconnection occurs in small localized bursts at random anywhere along the separator.Occurrence, distribution and abundance of cetaceans in Onslow Bay, North Carolina, USA
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/7772
In this paper the occurrence, distribution and abundance of cetaceans in offshore waters of Onslow Bay, North Carolina, USA is described. Between June 2007 and June 2010 monthly aerial and shipboard line-transect surveys were conducted along ten 74km transects placed perpendicular to the shelf break. In total 42,676km of aerial trackline (218 sightings) and 5,209km of vessel trackline (100 sightings) were observed. Seven species of cetaceans were observed, but the fauna was dominated strongly by common bottlenose and Atlantic spotted dolphins. Both species were present year-round in the study area. Using photo-identification techniques, five bottlenose dolphins and one spotted dolphin were resighted during the three-year period. In general, the abundance of cetaceans in Onslow Bay was low and too few sightings were made to estimate monthly abundances for species other than bottlenose and spotted dolphins. Maximum monthly abundances of bottlenose and spotted dolphins were 4,100 (95% CI: 1,300–9,400) in May 2010 and 6,000 (95% CI: 2,500–17,400) in March 2009, respectively. Bottlenose dolphins were found throughout the study area, although they were encountered most frequently just off the shelf break. In contrast, spotted dolphins exhibited a strong preference for waters over the continental shelf and were not encountered beyond the shelf break.
2014-01-01T00:00:00ZRead, Andrew, J.Barco, S.Bell, J.Borchers, David LouisBurt, M LouiseCummings, E.W.Dunn, J.Fougeres, J.Hazen, L.Williams-Hodge, L.E.Laura, A-M.McAlarney, R.J.Nilsson, P.Pabst, D.A.Paxton, Charles G. M.Schneider, S.Z.Urian, KimWaples, D.M.McLellan, W.A.In this paper the occurrence, distribution and abundance of cetaceans in offshore waters of Onslow Bay, North Carolina, USA is described. Between June 2007 and June 2010 monthly aerial and shipboard line-transect surveys were conducted along ten 74km transects placed perpendicular to the shelf break. In total 42,676km of aerial trackline (218 sightings) and 5,209km of vessel trackline (100 sightings) were observed. Seven species of cetaceans were observed, but the fauna was dominated strongly by common bottlenose and Atlantic spotted dolphins. Both species were present year-round in the study area. Using photo-identification techniques, five bottlenose dolphins and one spotted dolphin were resighted during the three-year period. In general, the abundance of cetaceans in Onslow Bay was low and too few sightings were made to estimate monthly abundances for species other than bottlenose and spotted dolphins. Maximum monthly abundances of bottlenose and spotted dolphins were 4,100 (95% CI: 1,300–9,400) in May 2010 and 6,000 (95% CI: 2,500–17,400) in March 2009, respectively. Bottlenose dolphins were found throughout the study area, although they were encountered most frequently just off the shelf break. In contrast, spotted dolphins exhibited a strong preference for waters over the continental shelf and were not encountered beyond the shelf break.Resistive magnetohydrodynamic reconnection : resolving long-term, chaotic dynamics
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/5233
In this paper, we address the long-term evolution of an idealised double current system entering reconnection regimes where chaotic behavior plays a prominent role. Our aim is to quantify the energetics in high magnetic Reynolds number evolutions, enriched by secondary tearing events, multiple magnetic island coalescence, and compressive versus resistive heating scenarios. Our study will pay particular attention to the required numerical resolutions achievable by modern (grid-adaptive) computations, and comment on the challenge associated with resolving chaotic island formation and interaction. We will use shock-capturing, conservative, grid-adaptive simulations for investigating trends dominated by both physical (resistivity) and numerical (resolution) parameters, and confront them with (visco-)resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations performed with very different, but equally widely used discretization schemes. This will allow us to comment on the obtained evolutions in a manner irrespective of the adopted discretization strategy. Our findings demonstrate that all schemes used (finite volume based shock-capturing, high order finite differences, and particle in cell-like methods) qualitatively agree on the various evolutionary stages, and that resistivity values of order 0.001 already can lead to chaotic island appearance. However, none of the methods exploited demonstrates convergence in the strong sense in these chaotic regimes. At the same time, nonperturbed tests for showing convergence over long time scales in ideal to resistive regimes are provided as well, where all methods are shown to agree. Both the advantages and disadvantages of specific discretizations as applied to this challenging problem are discussed.
We acknowledge financial support from the EC FP7/2007-2013 Grant Agreement SWIFF (No. 263340) and from project GOA/2009/009 (KU Leuven). This research has been funded by the Interuniversity Attraction Poles Programme initiated by the Belgian Science Policy Office (IAP P7/08 CHARM). Part of the simulations used the infrastructure of the VSC-Flemish Supercomputer Center, funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government-Department EWI. Another part of the simulations was done at the former Danish Center for Scientific Computing at Copenhagen University which is now part of DeIC Danish e-Infrastructure Cooperation.
2013-09-13T00:00:00ZKeppens, R.Porth, O.Galsgaard, K.Frederiksen, J.T.Restante, A.L.Lapenta, G.Parnell, C.In this paper, we address the long-term evolution of an idealised double current system entering reconnection regimes where chaotic behavior plays a prominent role. Our aim is to quantify the energetics in high magnetic Reynolds number evolutions, enriched by secondary tearing events, multiple magnetic island coalescence, and compressive versus resistive heating scenarios. Our study will pay particular attention to the required numerical resolutions achievable by modern (grid-adaptive) computations, and comment on the challenge associated with resolving chaotic island formation and interaction. We will use shock-capturing, conservative, grid-adaptive simulations for investigating trends dominated by both physical (resistivity) and numerical (resolution) parameters, and confront them with (visco-)resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations performed with very different, but equally widely used discretization schemes. This will allow us to comment on the obtained evolutions in a manner irrespective of the adopted discretization strategy. Our findings demonstrate that all schemes used (finite volume based shock-capturing, high order finite differences, and particle in cell-like methods) qualitatively agree on the various evolutionary stages, and that resistivity values of order 0.001 already can lead to chaotic island appearance. However, none of the methods exploited demonstrates convergence in the strong sense in these chaotic regimes. At the same time, nonperturbed tests for showing convergence over long time scales in ideal to resistive regimes are provided as well, where all methods are shown to agree. Both the advantages and disadvantages of specific discretizations as applied to this challenging problem are discussed.On the commutator lengths of certain classes of finitely presented groups
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/4719
For a finite group G = 〈X〉 (X ≠ G), the least positive integer ML(G) is called the maximum length of G with respect to the generating set X if every element of G maybe represented as a product of at most ML(G) elements of X. The maximum length of G, denoted by ML (G), is defined to be the minimum of {ML(G) G = 〈X〉, X ≠ G, X ≠ G - {1}}. The well-known commutator length of a group G, denoted by c (G), satisfies the inequality c (G) ≤ ML(G′), where G′ is the derived subgroup of G. In this paper we study the properties of ML (G) and by using this inequality we give upper bounds for the commutator lengths of certain classes of finite groups. In some cases these upper bounds involve the interesting sequences of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers.
2006-01-01T00:00:00ZDoostie, H.Campbell, P.P.For a finite group G = 〈X〉 (X ≠ G), the least positive integer ML(G) is called the maximum length of G with respect to the generating set X if every element of G maybe represented as a product of at most ML(G) elements of X. The maximum length of G, denoted by ML (G), is defined to be the minimum of {ML(G) G = 〈X〉, X ≠ G, X ≠ G - {1}}. The well-known commutator length of a group G, denoted by c (G), satisfies the inequality c (G) ≤ ML(G′), where G′ is the derived subgroup of G. In this paper we study the properties of ML (G) and by using this inequality we give upper bounds for the commutator lengths of certain classes of finite groups. In some cases these upper bounds involve the interesting sequences of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers.Pelagic movements of pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) reveal the complex role of prey and ocean currents
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/4356
Background: Leatherback turtles are renowned for their trans-oceanic migrations. However, despite numerous movement studies, the precise drivers of movement patterns in leatherbacks remain elusive. Many previous studies of leatherback turtles as well as other diving marine predators have analyzed surface movement patterns using only surface covariates. Since turtles and other marine predators spend the vast majority of their time diving under water, an analysis of movement patterns at depth should yield insight into what drives their movements. Results: We analyzed the movement paths of 15 post-nesting adult female Pacific leatherback turtles, which were caught and tagged on three nesting beaches in Mexico. The temporal length of the tracks ranged from 32 to 436 days, and the spatial distance covered ranged from 1,532 km to 13,097 km. We analyzed these tracks using a movement model designed to yield inference on the parameters driving movement. Because the telemetry data included diving depths, we extended an earlier version of the model that examined surface only movements, and here analyze movements in 3-dimensions. We tested the effect of dynamic environmental covariates from a coupled biophysical oceanographic model on patch choice in diving leatherback turtles, and compared the effects of parameters measured at the surface and at depth. The covariates included distance to future patch, temperature, salinity, meridional current velocity (current in the north–south direction), zonal current velocity (current in the east–west direction), phytoplankton density, diatom density, micro-plankton density, and meso-zooplankton density. We found significant, i.e. non-zero, correlation between movement and the parameters for oceanic covariates in 8 of the tracks. Of particular note, for one turtle we observed a lack of correlation between movements and a modeled index of zooplankton at the surface, but a significant correlation between movements and zooplankton at depth. Two of the turtles express a preference for patches at depth with elevated diatoms, and 2 turtles prefer patches with higher mezozooplankton values at depth. In contrast, 4 turtles expressed a preference for elevated zooplankton patches at the surface, but not at depth. We suggest that our understanding of a marine predator’s response to the environment may change significantly depending upon the analytical frame of reference, i.e. whether relationships are examined at the surface, at depth, or at different temporal resolutions. Lastly, we tested the effects of accounting for ocean currents on the movement patterns and found that for 13 of the 15 turtles, the parameter governing distance to the next patch decreased. Conclusions: Our results suggest that relationships derived from the analysis of surface tracks may not entirely explain movement patterns of this highly migratory species. Accounting for choices in the water column has shown that for certain individual turtles, what appears to be favourable habitat at depth is quantitatively different from that at the surface. This has implications for the analysis of the movements and diving behaviour of any top marine predator. The leatherback turtle is a deep diving reptile, and it is important to understand the subsurface variables that influence their movements if we are to precisely map the spatial dimensions of favorable leatherback habitat. These results present a new view into the drivers of diving patterns in turtles, and in particular represent a way of analyzing movements at depth that can be extended to other diving species.
APC paid through BIS OA funds.
2013-11-20T00:00:00ZSchick, Robert SchillingRoberts, JasonEckert, ScottClark, JamesBailey, HelenChai, FeiShi, LiHalpin, PatrickBackground: Leatherback turtles are renowned for their trans-oceanic migrations. However, despite numerous movement studies, the precise drivers of movement patterns in leatherbacks remain elusive. Many previous studies of leatherback turtles as well as other diving marine predators have analyzed surface movement patterns using only surface covariates. Since turtles and other marine predators spend the vast majority of their time diving under water, an analysis of movement patterns at depth should yield insight into what drives their movements. Results: We analyzed the movement paths of 15 post-nesting adult female Pacific leatherback turtles, which were caught and tagged on three nesting beaches in Mexico. The temporal length of the tracks ranged from 32 to 436 days, and the spatial distance covered ranged from 1,532 km to 13,097 km. We analyzed these tracks using a movement model designed to yield inference on the parameters driving movement. Because the telemetry data included diving depths, we extended an earlier version of the model that examined surface only movements, and here analyze movements in 3-dimensions. We tested the effect of dynamic environmental covariates from a coupled biophysical oceanographic model on patch choice in diving leatherback turtles, and compared the effects of parameters measured at the surface and at depth. The covariates included distance to future patch, temperature, salinity, meridional current velocity (current in the north–south direction), zonal current velocity (current in the east–west direction), phytoplankton density, diatom density, micro-plankton density, and meso-zooplankton density. We found significant, i.e. non-zero, correlation between movement and the parameters for oceanic covariates in 8 of the tracks. Of particular note, for one turtle we observed a lack of correlation between movements and a modeled index of zooplankton at the surface, but a significant correlation between movements and zooplankton at depth. Two of the turtles express a preference for patches at depth with elevated diatoms, and 2 turtles prefer patches with higher mezozooplankton values at depth. In contrast, 4 turtles expressed a preference for elevated zooplankton patches at the surface, but not at depth. We suggest that our understanding of a marine predator’s response to the environment may change significantly depending upon the analytical frame of reference, i.e. whether relationships are examined at the surface, at depth, or at different temporal resolutions. Lastly, we tested the effects of accounting for ocean currents on the movement patterns and found that for 13 of the 15 turtles, the parameter governing distance to the next patch decreased. Conclusions: Our results suggest that relationships derived from the analysis of surface tracks may not entirely explain movement patterns of this highly migratory species. Accounting for choices in the water column has shown that for certain individual turtles, what appears to be favourable habitat at depth is quantitatively different from that at the surface. This has implications for the analysis of the movements and diving behaviour of any top marine predator. The leatherback turtle is a deep diving reptile, and it is important to understand the subsurface variables that influence their movements if we are to precisely map the spatial dimensions of favorable leatherback habitat. These results present a new view into the drivers of diving patterns in turtles, and in particular represent a way of analyzing movements at depth that can be extended to other diving species.Maximum likelihood estimation of mark-recapture-recovery models in the presence of continuous covariates
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/4073
We consider mark-recapture-recovery (MRR) data of animals where the model parameters are a function of individual time-varying continuous covariates. For such covariates, the covariate value is unobserved if the corresponding individual is unobserved, in which case the survival probability cannot be evaluated. For continuous-valued covariates, the corresponding likelihood can only be expressed in the form of an integral that is analytically intractable, and, to date, no maximum likelihood approach that uses all the information in the data has been developed. Assuming a first-order Markov process for the covariate values, we accomplish this task by formulating the MRR setting in a state-space framework and considering an approximate likelihood approach which essentially discretizes the range of covariate values, reducing the integral to a summation. The likelihood can then be efficiently calculated and maximized using standard techniques for hidden Markov models. We initially assess the approach using simulated data before applying to real data relating to Soay sheep, specifying the survival probability as a function of body mass. Models that have previously been suggested for the corresponding covariate process are typically of the form of di.usive random walks. We consider an alternative non-di.usive AR(1)-type model which appears to provide a significantly better fit to the Soay sheep data.
Supplementary material: R code for model fitting. Sample R code for simulating MRR data and fitting the corresponding model using the HMM-based approach (with MRR model as described in Section 3). Digital Object Identifier: doi:10.1214/13-AOAS644SUPP
2013-01-01T00:00:00ZLangrock, RolandKing, RuthWe consider mark-recapture-recovery (MRR) data of animals where the model parameters are a function of individual time-varying continuous covariates. For such covariates, the covariate value is unobserved if the corresponding individual is unobserved, in which case the survival probability cannot be evaluated. For continuous-valued covariates, the corresponding likelihood can only be expressed in the form of an integral that is analytically intractable, and, to date, no maximum likelihood approach that uses all the information in the data has been developed. Assuming a first-order Markov process for the covariate values, we accomplish this task by formulating the MRR setting in a state-space framework and considering an approximate likelihood approach which essentially discretizes the range of covariate values, reducing the integral to a summation. The likelihood can then be efficiently calculated and maximized using standard techniques for hidden Markov models. We initially assess the approach using simulated data before applying to real data relating to Soay sheep, specifying the survival probability as a function of body mass. Models that have previously been suggested for the corresponding covariate process are typically of the form of di.usive random walks. We consider an alternative non-di.usive AR(1)-type model which appears to provide a significantly better fit to the Soay sheep data.On disjoint unions of finitely many copies of the free monogenic semigroup
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/3341
Every semigroup which is a finite disjoint union of copies of the free monogenic semigroup (natural numbers under addition) is finitely presented and residually finite.
2013-08-01T00:00:00ZAbughazalah, NabilahRuskuc, NikEvery semigroup which is a finite disjoint union of copies of the free monogenic semigroup (natural numbers under addition) is finitely presented and residually finite.Unary FA-presentable semigroups
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2375
Automatic presentations, also called FA-presentations, were introduced to extend nite model theory to innite structures whilst retaining the solubility of interesting decision problems. A particular focus of research has been the classication of those structures of some species that admit automatic presentations. Whilst some successes have been obtained, this appears to be a dicult problem in general. A restricted problem, also of signicant interest, is to ask this question for unary automatic presentations: auto-matic presentations over a one-letter alphabet. This paper studies unary FA-presentable semigroups. We prove the following: Every unary FA-presentable structure admits an injective unary automatic presentation where the language of representatives consists of every word over a one-letter alphabet. Unary FA-presentable semigroups are locally nite, but non-nitely generated unary FA-presentable semigroups may be innite. Every unary FA-presentable semigroup satises some Burnside identity.We describe the Green's relations in unary FA-presentable semigroups. We investigate the relationship between the class of unary FA-presentable semigroups and various semigroup constructions. A classication is given of the unary FA-presentable completely simple semigroups.
2012-06-08T00:00:00ZCain, Alan JamesRuskuc, NikThomas, R.M.Automatic presentations, also called FA-presentations, were introduced to extend nite model theory to innite structures whilst retaining the solubility of interesting decision problems. A particular focus of research has been the classication of those structures of some species that admit automatic presentations. Whilst some successes have been obtained, this appears to be a dicult problem in general. A restricted problem, also of signicant interest, is to ask this question for unary automatic presentations: auto-matic presentations over a one-letter alphabet. This paper studies unary FA-presentable semigroups. We prove the following: Every unary FA-presentable structure admits an injective unary automatic presentation where the language of representatives consists of every word over a one-letter alphabet. Unary FA-presentable semigroups are locally nite, but non-nitely generated unary FA-presentable semigroups may be innite. Every unary FA-presentable semigroup satises some Burnside identity.We describe the Green's relations in unary FA-presentable semigroups. We investigate the relationship between the class of unary FA-presentable semigroups and various semigroup constructions. A classication is given of the unary FA-presentable completely simple semigroups.Finite groups are big as semigroups
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2004
We prove that a finite group G occurs as a maximal proper subsemigroup of an infinite semigroup (in the terminology of Freese, Ježek, and Nation, G is a big semigroup) if and only if |G| ≥ 3. In fact, any finite semigroup whose minimal ideal contains a subgroup with at least three elements is big.
2011-09-01T00:00:00ZDolinka, IgorRuskuc, NikWe prove that a finite group G occurs as a maximal proper subsemigroup of an infinite semigroup (in the terminology of Freese, Ježek, and Nation, G is a big semigroup) if and only if |G| ≥ 3. In fact, any finite semigroup whose minimal ideal contains a subgroup with at least three elements is big.A first survey of the global population size and distribution of the Scottish Crossbill Loxia scotica
http://hdl.handle.net/10023/1957
A survey of Scottish Crossbills Loxia scotica was carried out in 3,506 km2 of conifer woodland in northern Scotland during January to April 2008 to provide the first estimate of the global population size for this endemic bird. Population estimates were also made for Common Crossbills L. curvirostra and Parrot Crossbills L. pytyopsittacus within this range. Crossbills were lured to systematically selected survey points for counting, sexing and recording their calls for later call-type (species) identification from sonograms. Crossbills were located at 451 of the 852 survey points, and adequate tape-recordings made at 387 of these. The Scottish Crossbill had a disjunct distribution, occurring largely within the eastern part of the study area, but also in the northwest. Common Crossbills had a mainly westerly distribution. The population size of postjuvenile Scottish Crossbills was estimated as 13,600 (95%C.I. 8,130–22,700), which will approximate to 6,800 (4,065–11,350) pairs. Common Crossbills were more abundant within this range (27,100, 95% C.I. 14,700–38,400) and Parrot Crossbills rare (about 100). The sex ratio was not significantly different from parity for Scottish Crossbills. The modal number at survey points was two but numbers were larger in January than later in the survey. The numbers and distribution of all crossbill species are likely to vary between years, depending upon the size of the cone crops of the different conifers: all were coning in 2008. Common Crossbill and Parrot Crossbill numbers will also be affected by irruptions from continental Europe. A monitoring scheme is required to detect any population trend, and further work on their habitat requirement (e.g. conifer selection at different seasons) is needed to inform habitat management of native and planted conifer forests to ensure a secure future for this endemic bird.
"The survey was part-financed by Scottish Natural Heritage"
2011-06-01T00:00:00ZSummers, Ron WBuckland, Stephen TerrenceA survey of Scottish Crossbills Loxia scotica was carried out in 3,506 km2 of conifer woodland in northern Scotland during January to April 2008 to provide the first estimate of the global population size for this endemic bird. Population estimates were also made for Common Crossbills L. curvirostra and Parrot Crossbills L. pytyopsittacus within this range. Crossbills were lured to systematically selected survey points for counting, sexing and recording their calls for later call-type (species) identification from sonograms. Crossbills were located at 451 of the 852 survey points, and adequate tape-recordings made at 387 of these. The Scottish Crossbill had a disjunct distribution, occurring largely within the eastern part of the study area, but also in the northwest. Common Crossbills had a mainly westerly distribution. The population size of postjuvenile Scottish Crossbills was estimated as 13,600 (95%C.I. 8,130–22,700), which will approximate to 6,800 (4,065–11,350) pairs. Common Crossbills were more abundant within this range (27,100, 95% C.I. 14,700–38,400) and Parrot Crossbills rare (about 100). The sex ratio was not significantly different from parity for Scottish Crossbills. The modal number at survey points was two but numbers were larger in January than later in the survey. The numbers and distribution of all crossbill species are likely to vary between years, depending upon the size of the cone crops of the different conifers: all were coning in 2008. Common Crossbill and Parrot Crossbill numbers will also be affected by irruptions from continental Europe. A monitoring scheme is required to detect any population trend, and further work on their habitat requirement (e.g. conifer selection at different seasons) is needed to inform habitat management of native and planted conifer forests to ensure a secure future for this endemic bird.